This axis focuses on the development of new methodologies for large data analysis such as histograms, images, or point clouds, based on concepts from the optimal transport theory. This methodology results in the use of non-Euclidean metric (such as Wasserstein distances) to extract the geometrical information in the presence of non-linear sources of variability in the data. In this context, a new method of Principal Component Analysis based on the Wasserstein distance has recently been proposed with applications to statistical analysis of histograms.
The use of optimal transport has also been proposed for various image processing problems. By generalizing transport distances by regularizing the associated transport plans, new image interpolation methods were developed for applications in oceanography. The Wasserstein distance was also considered to more traditional problems such as image segmentation or color transfer.
We study different relaxations of non-convex functionals that can be found in image processing. Some problems, such as image segmentation, can indeed be written as the minimization of a functional. The minimizer of the functional represents the segmentation.
Different methods have been proposed in order to find local or global minima of the non-convex functional of the two-phase piecewise constant Mumford-Shah model. With a convex relaxation of this model we can find a global minimum of the non-convex functional. We present and compare some of these methods and we propose a new model with a narrow band. This models finds local minima while using robust convex optimization algorithms. Then a convex relaxation of a two-phase segmentation model is built that compares two given histograms with those of the two segmented regions.
We also study some relaxations of high-dimension multi-label problems such as optical flow computation. A convex relaxation with a new algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is iterative with exact projections. A new algorithm is given for a relaxation that is convex in each variable but that is not convex globally. We study the problem of constructing a solution of the original non-convex problem with a solution of the relaxed problem. We compare existing methods with new ones.